When I was in Switzerland over 30 years ago, the milk cows were kept full time in the stall with the grass cut and brought into them, the reason quoted was that there was not enough land for them to graze, hmmmmmm….
Here in the Lungau, I was astonished to find the practise still going on. I do hope it was just they were tied in for open day in these pictures and usually just came in to milk- the farm had loads of fields. The tail tying I think is particularly mean in the summer, if they are left like that.
But saying that, the cows do have to spend all winter indoors, force fed hay and silage, cleaned out twice daily and in the warm. Some of the new organic farms have to be built with stalls where they are free to move and with access to hardstanding outside. Some farms do have outside areas, and the cows look completely miserable having been turfed out into the cold. No one has asked them apparently what they prefer!